Soil erosion of farmland
Water erosion is the destruction of the soil by water, which washes out nutrients from the soil, causing their loss. The process might even lead to the deformation of the terrain, especially farmland, which could result in the loss of 10% – 80% of the yield! Soil erosion is an issue for the large farms as well as the small family farms. Globally, the phenomenon causes losses of 75 billion tonnes of crops per year.
The reasons of soil erosion
The factors which cause soil erosion include climate, the type and quantity of plants that cover the soil, the shape of the area and the influence of human activity.
Climate conditions which lead to water erosion include the frequency and quantity of rainfall, with particular reference to the occurrence of deluges. They pose a particular threat following the moment when the soil has been plowed up and there is no vegetation in the fields.
The land relief is another important factor contributing to erosion. It has been proven that the scale of the phenomenon depends on the length and the decline of the slope. If the decline increases by 2-4 angles, soil erosion nearly doubles. If the decline is higher by 4–8 angles, the erosion might become four times more aggravated.
Science and technology conference in Szonowice
Despite its grave consequences, water erosion rarely becomes a topic of business and scientific discussions. And this despite the fact that the problem is present on about 4 million farms in Poland.
A conference about water erosion and the methods of preventing its negative consequences from damaging the farms was held on the 19th and 20th February in Szonowice. At the conference, erosion of soil in Poland and in the world was discussed. Apart from the presentations about the theory and practice, we heard talks by agricultural manufactures who need to deal with the problem on a daily basis. Economic and financial repercussions of erosion on farmland were also discussed.